Gum Sickness and Smelly Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases might be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is surely an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in all ages but manifests more frequently in children and teenagers.

Periodontitis is definitely an inflammation with subsequent destruction in the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent decrease of teeth. This disorder mainly manifests during the early mid-life with severity increasing in the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in the individual.

Gum diseases have been discovered being the most widespread chronic diseases the world over which has a prevalence of between 90 and 100 % in older adults over 35 yrs . old in developing countries. It has already been proved to be the main cause of loss of teeth in individuals 40 years and above.

Terrible breath is among the major consequences of gum diseases.

Some of the terms which might be greatly associated with terrible breath and gum diseases are the following:

Dental Plaque- The essential desire for the prevention and treatment of a disease is an comprehension of its causes. The main source of gum diseases is bacteria, which form an intricate around the tooth surface called plaque. These bacteria’s are the root cause of halitosis bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations for the teeth or another solid oral structures. If it is of sufficient thickness, it appears like a whitish, yellowish layer mainly along the gum margins on the tooth surface. Its presence can even be discerned by the conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping the teeth surface down the gum margins.

When plaque is examined under the microscope, it reveals many different types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells are often present. The micro-organisms detected vary according to the site where they are present.
There are gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and sometimes even small amounts of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are usually covered by a skinny layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle enables the selective adherence of bacteria for the tooth surface.

Through the first few hours, the bacteria proliferate to make colonies. Furthermore, other organisms will likely populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to form a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The information present involving the bacteria is known as intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 % with the plaque volume. This matrix is primarily extra cellular carbohydrate polymers manufactured by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small amounts of plaque are suitable for gingival or periodontal health. A lot of people can resist larger levels of plaque for very long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction from the supporting tissues) but they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation in the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play an essential part in plaque formation by modifying the amount and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation would be, there will be more terrible breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation since they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolism and also provide the recycleables (substrate) to the creation of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque may be the responsible for gum diseases, numerous others viewed as secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or customize the response of gum tissue to plaque. A nearby factors are:

1) Cavities from the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (false teeth);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Cigarette smoking.

The systemic factors which potentially get a new gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders and others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and ascorbic acid and B deficiency.

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